Autoethnography

Sailor Moon: Art Styles and Epiphanies

Script:

After reading Ellis et al, my understanding of autoethnography is that it’s a process. A process of methodologies that require personal experience. Simplistically put, you identify a part in a culture you would like to further understand or analyse, for example my group’s autoethnography project was on Japanese dating sims. We identified this billion dollar industry but were unfamiliar with the games, how it became popular, why it became popular and how it has influenced the Western cultures (if so).

After identifying the area of focus and researching everything you can about the topic, the next progression stage is immersing yourself in the experience. Whether it’s playing games, attending events, making something – whatever it be, immerse yourself in that cultural experience and then document it. This is one of the most critical and most stressed points in autoethnography. In the Autoethnography journal, Ellis et al clearly states, “‘auto’ is from personal experience, ‘ethno’ is to understand cultural experience and ‘graphy’ is the approach to research and writing that describes and analyses (Ellis, 2004; Holman Jones, 2005). Obviously alluding to the final progression stage, describing and analysing your experience and findings.

I applied this autoethnography method through my individual research of Sailor Moon. I so far have made two videos available on YouTube where I give my first account and experience, and secondly, where I analyse the account through my own cultural framework and how it structured my investigation.

As I have been going through the process of autoethnography I have had my own epiphanies of realisation. When I say epiphanies, I’m not relating to Ellis et al’s definition, I will get to that in just a moment. I’m talking about the epiphanies I had through the process itself and through my gradual understanding of autoethnography. As you will see through my videos and blog posts, I experience stages of interpreting autoethnography as I carry out my research and even correct myself for the misunderstanding a couple of times.

The epiphany distinction I had to make is different as Ellis et al states in their journal, “…epiphanies that stem from, or are made possible by, being part of a culture and/or by possessing a particular cultural identity”. This distinction is clear, however, it is not to say I did not have epiphanies as I became a part of the Japanese culture by watching Sailor Moon and researching anime.

As mentioned, in my second video I analysed my initial account and how it structured my investigation. In the attached written piece, I confess as I critique myself, “I was somewhat unclear as to the direction of my investigation. I couldn’t quite articulate the differences I was seeing between the two shows and I put it all down to the lack of experience I have in watching anime”, therefore I came to the conclusion that I need to narrow the focus of my investigation.

As I watched and compared Sailor Moon (1992) and Sailor Moon Crystal (2014) I had an epiphany, I noticed that both versions are similar with their use of expressions and tropes. Although I also point out that Sailor Moon had a stronger emphasis on her expressions than that of Sailor Moon Crystal, which led to my assumption, that due to the change in art style (graphics) and minimised expressions, Sailor Moon Crystal has changed for a more western audience. As I later find out, this isn’t true. The change in style is actually due to Japan’s economic decline and using computers in an effort to save money during the 1970’s (Clements, 2013).

This is where I focus my investigation once more. Anime in general is very broad with many avenues to explore which often intertwined in research, so I needed to narrow it once more to clarify where I was heading with the investigation, and its clear focus. With this is mind, as well as still using Sailor Moon as a basis, I narrowed my research to the simple yet obvious question I found in my video, ‘how and why has the art style changed between Sailor Moon (1992) and Sailor Moon Crystal (2014)’.

To start off, the obvious visual answer to the difference between the two styles is stated in a blog post by Crunchyroll, a global video service for Japanese anime and Asian content. Here they describe the differences between the 90’s anime art style and the 00’s. The 90’s art style consisted of thick lines, a strong emphasis on pen pressure, a defined shadow and highlight, big hair with bundled strands, large highlight in the eye with black pupil, eyes are shaped as oblong circle, nose drawn as hiragana (Japanese writing system, in English it looks like an L) and a mouth placed in a high position. In contrast, the 00’s art style consisted of thin delicate lines, conservative use of shadows and highlights, less hair volume and without bundled strands, small highlights in eyes, pupils aren’t filled, circular shaped eyes, nose is expressed as a dot, and mouth is placed low on the face.

However, this is just an overall perception. In comparison between Sailor Moon and Sailor Moon Crystal, the main features that changed were her eyes (they’re now bigger and more round), her chin is pointed as is her nose, the colour of her eyes have black pupils and also have highlights and shadows, giving her eyes a 3D look (Crunchyroll, 2013).

Mentioning 3D, it’s also obvious that Sailor Moon Crystal has been made with 3D computer graphics. Until the mid 1990’s animators continued to work with pencils, the lower levels of inbetweening (which is a frame between two images giving the illusion of motion), and colouring to capitalise the labour-saving functions of computers (Clements, 2013). Jonathan Clements states in his book Anime: A History, “the close of the twentieth century saw several productions jostling for the chance to claim the cultural capital of being the ‘first; fully digital anime” (Clements, 2013). This clearly showing that the main reason for style change between both versions of Sailor Moon is due to the advancement of technology and the eager adaptation of computers in Japan. The introduction of computers made it easier and more efficient for animators to create and edit their work, however Japan has had a love-hate relationship with 3D graphics with an apparent desire to cling to 2D animation, or to 3D animation that looks like 2D (Clements, 2013). There’s nothing in my research that says that this -in anyway, was included in the Sailor Moon series, so purely off my own observation, I don’t believe that Sailor Moon was affected by this love-hate relationship. If anything, I think the graphics in Sailor Moon Crystal are used in praise.

Overall, the answer to ‘why’ Sailor Moon has changed art styles is simply because of the adoption of computers in Japan. So, my assumption that it was because of audience change isn’t correct. However, western cultures are becoming more influenced by anime productions and the industry. As for the ‘how’ Sailor Moon changed art styles, it’s mostly visual changes including the change between pencil drawing production to rendered 3D graphics. Unfortunately, there isn’t much on explaining the artistic differences for Sailor Moon, especially in terms of film direction of the show. This would most likely require further research and investigation by contacting the production company Madman.

Other epiphanies I had throughout my research that I found interesting but weren’t specific to my investigation of art style change, were:

  • The difference between ‘anime’ and ‘cartoon’. Anime in Japan is shortened form of ‘animation’ where as to the western audience, because of the distinct stylistic difference, anime refers to an animation made in Japan.
  • Shape-shifting into an animal or demon comes from Japanese fairy tales, which actually derived from Franz Kafka, a novelist and short story author born in Prague during 1883, and who often had works based on transformation and its effects (MacWilliams, 2014).
  • This can relate to Sailor Moon who, through her series, relinquishes shape-shifting demons
  • In Sailor Moon Crystal, Usagi (aka Sailor Moon) is constantly seen playing a Sailor V game at the arcade, which could be a nod to the evolution of the Japanese gaming culture and its capital in animation such as Street Fighter II: V (Clements, 2013)
  • Anime isn’t just for children, it can also for a more adult audience, making animation films with in depth character and plot development, as well as realistic character designs. For example, Ghost in the Shell, and Perfect Blue.
  • There’s a large relationship of influence and history between Hollywood and the anime/manga industry
  • Character designs represents their personality

References:

http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/JapaneseVisualArtsTropes

http://www.diffen.com/difference/Anime_vs_Cartoon

https://www.wired.com/2014/07/sailor-moon-faq/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1h-ZYtHCB4k The Evolution of Anime Character Designs, AnimeEverday

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZQ0EZp0dzk When anime went digital, AnimeEverday

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dwj2ahYnci4 The Stylistic Evolution of Anime, AnimeEverday

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3hjtUYPtns Why Does Modern Anime Suck? AnimeEverday

https://gemr.com/blog/how-anime-has-changed-over-25-years/

https://www.kotaku.com.au/2014/11/how-anime-art-has-changed-an-explainer/

http://www.crunchyroll.com/anime-news/2013/10/04-1/90s-versus-00s-moe-character-design-examined

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=6dDfBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA82&dq=stylistic+changes+in+anime&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=stylistic%20changes%20in%20anime&f=false Japanese Visual Culture: Explorations in the World of Manga and Anime, M.W. MacWilliams, 2014

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=UQMVCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT340&dq=stylistic+changes+in+anime&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=stylistic%20changes%20in%20anime&f=false Anime: A History, J. Clements, 2013

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=yPDHCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT121&dq=anime+art+style&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihke-13pfXAhVJmJQKHYXfARkQ6AEIWTAJ#v=onepage&q=anime%20art%20style&f=false Manga and Anime Go to Hollywood, N. Davis

https://soundcloud.com/user-972508607/sailor-moon Sailor Moon, Wizard and the Bruiser

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Your Name – An Autoethnographic Study of Shintoism

krisesandchrosses

The area of study which I chose to explore was centred around spirituality in anime with a focus on the successful film Your Name. Throughout this project I have been able to immerse myself in the Shintoism and try to cultivate my understanding and knowledge in relation to Japanese culture by employing my own cultural framework and assumptions (Ellis, 2011).

I found, in my experience, that a few key moments or epiphanies stood out to me, being transformative to my own understanding of Japanese culture and spirituality. I was able to understand this through identifying and analysing the following phenomena and evaluating their transformative effects through qualitative research and experiences relating back to my own cultural framework (Moore, 2017).

In this way, as a storyteller, I used the medium of YouTube and video to convey my message to an audience suited to my chosen area of study (Allen-Collinson &…

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DA: Translating English to Japanese to English

As someone who was born in Australia in a family where Tagalog is the first language I’ve picked up on both English and Tagalog growing up. During Primary School I’ve also picked up Japanese as well. Japanese media was a huge part of my life since it makes up a huge portion of not only my childhood but my current interests and hobbies as well. Ranging from building Gundams to playing the next big JRPG a year before it’s English release.

https://vid.me/68ME1

Growing up with a family that speaks Tagalog at home, friends that speak English and studying Japanese in my own free time. I’ve been exposed to a wide spectrum of perspectives regarding Asia and the west. One of my most fond memories of my childhood was watching Cartoon network shows such as Foster’s home for Imaginary friends and The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy. The writing behind the two series is amazing and all the jokes have impeccable timing.

Since I know more than one language, I figured it’d be interesting to see how those two made the transition from English to Japanese. But on top of this, I’ve translated it back into English to see how it compares to the original English script.

Part of the idea came from putting 少年 (shounen/boy in Japanese) into Google translate, reversing the translation from JP > EN to make it JP > EN then switching the 2nd language to a different one. This could be done to a point where the word has changed completely. It’s kind of like Chinese whispers but for Google actually now that I actually think about it.

During this digital artifact I’ve come across a few epiphanies regarding translation from one language to another. The biggest one that came from this project is that a 1-to-1 translation is never recommended, at least for English to Japanese or vice versa. Literal translations never come out well.

_ShijinTenshi_AirGear_V12_Ch097_14_038_

Here’s what it looks like if you aim for a 1-to-1 translation.

Translation is all about having something make sense for a foreign audience while retaining the original message behind the medium. It’s absolutely key to retain the original experience the original audience had and let a foreign audience experience it the same way. Despite this being the key point of translation however, fan subtitles can fall into this trap. Duwang translations of Jojo’s Bizarre Adventure being among one of the most infamous.

Even though, fan translations are generally of lower quality, they’re quite popular for Japanese video games (Lee, HK 2011). One of the best examples of a fan translation is the one for Phantasy Star Online 2. I mention this one specifically because while it is a fan translation, it’s a fan translation of an MMO. MMOs generally take 4 – 5 years to create. Part of this large process is due to the script for NPCs, story and quest text. PSO2 has yet to be released in English however the fan translation team has translated 99% of it and are keeping up with the game’s constant story/quest updates.

Another thing I learned from this Digital artifact is that, adding subtitles to something is more time consuming than expected. Going in I thought adding text to a video was simple. I mean it was, but aligning the timing of the words with the subtitles is was took the most effort, especially for longer sentences. Getting the timing down for subtitles to stay on screen long enough for the audience to read but not have it too slow was something I had to keep in mind.

One final thing that I took away from this project is that it’s difficult to make Japanese seem have a lot of flair in comparison to English. At least in regards to the cartoons I’ve translated. This is the dialogue in the cartoon network shows are very direct and lack a lot of the nuance that made them so fun to watch years later. While it may seem small, this difference in language vocabulary and structure is what leads to what works in each language. Slapstick comedy shows such as Gaki no Tsukai  are more popular than ever in Japan, but stand up comedians such as Louis CK is what’s popular in the west. Slapstick comedy is straightforward and requires no build up while stand up comedy is quite the opposite, relying on how it’s set and built up.

To end this project, take a look at the results: (I used vid.me because youtube takes too long to upload)

https://vid.me/cASyv

https://vid.me/QZ7mM

https://vid.me/m7vry

Reference List

Ellis, C, Adams, TE, & Bochner, AP 2011, ‘Autoethnography: an overview’, Forum: Qualitative Social Research, vol. 12, no. 1, viewed 15 October 2017, <http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1589/3095&gt;

Lee, HK 2011, ‘Participatory media fandom: A case study of anime fansubbing’, Media, Culture & Society, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1131-1147.

V-pop (is NOT K-pop!)

Hey everyone!

This blog post is just here to accompany my podcast for my DA!

My Podcast (For some reason it wouldn’t upload to Soundcloud… .-. :
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B38Ro63ZCMKqb3k0LWl5aWNobGc/view

My Notes:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/11S7xqf5cYufr9yxPAg86ZZ3kCKCuzG5LrhKekso4AEE/edit?usp=sharing

MV Research:

 

 

 

Sources:

Digital Artefact: Learning Japanese Calligraphy

I’ve always been intrigued by Japanese culture. I was given the opportunity to study the language and culture for one year in high school but the class only taught the most basic of things. In the past year, I have also developed an interest in typography and brush lettering. This style of lettering has been developed from more traditional forms such as Japanese calligraphy, or Shodo. The research I have conducted surrounding Japanese calligraphy and how it works as an art form is a combination of personal narrative and outsourced information and data. My methodology followed Ellis, et al’s Autoethnography: An Overview. I would be using this method of research to describe and analyse my personal experience as a way of understanding this cultural experience (Ellis, et al 2011).

For my digital artefact, I created a three-part series that showcased myself using different application methods to learning the basic skills of Japanese calligraphy. As traditional shodo takes many, many years to practice and perfect, I would only be attempting to learn the stroke order of the hirigana alphabet. I explored both traditional and contemporary methods of application, which can be seen in videos two and three of the series.

Before even attempting to put a pen/ brush to paper, I researched methods of setting up materials and the correct way to prep new tools. It was during this process that I really had my first epiphany. I was so intrigued with the idea that there were so many rules out there when it came to shodo. Being told that I have to sit up straight and have two feet on the floor while writing out characters was more challenging than I thought it would be. I’ve always had poor posture and I tend to slump when I’m writing, drawing or typing, but after actually putting this rule into action, I was able to see why it may be so important in the art form that is shodo.

From this whole experience, I concluded that the more traditional form of shodo was a lot easier to learn. It was far more enjoyable to use a brush and ink to learn than it was using an app on my iPad. The common theme I found with using an app was that it was near impossible to predict the pressure you were placing on the screen. This, ultimately, affected how the hirigana character looked. I also found it difficult to feel immersed in the experience as I was simply just dragging my finger around a screen. It was such a contrast from using a brush and getting ink on my hands and fiddling with the paper. In saying this, the app also acknowledged that it was just a learning tool. When I first opened the app, it had three little ‘Must Reads’. They said “Paper, writing brush and ink are the best and proved method for calligraphy/ practicing…” and “The idea of this app is to help [focus] on the structure of glyphs and mastering the essence of calligraphy”.

All three videos contain some form of voice over. This was just to provide some context into what I was doing, what I was trying to achieve, and how I felt looking back on the experience.  This experience has instilled in me the fact that shodo is an art form and it has allowed me to understand why it is so highly regarded in Japanese culture.

Part 1: Learning the Strokes

Part 2: Saying Bye to Practice Guides

Part 3: Going Digital

References: 

Ellis, C., Adams, T., & Bochner, A. (2011). ‘Autoethnography: An Overview’. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/fqs-12.1.1589

Kim, T. (2017). Hiragana Practice Exercises – Learn Japanese. Guidetojapanese.org. http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/hiragana_ex

MAIKOYA. (2017). Japanese Calligraphy (Shodo). https://mai-ko.com/japanese-calligraphy-shodo/

Schumacher, M. (n.d.). Japanese Calligraphy, Calligraphy in Japan & China. Onmarkproductions.com. http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/calligraphy1.shtml

Shodo-japan.com. (n.d.). SHODO JAPAN|書道ジャパン. http://shodo-japan.com/

Origami – My Autoethnographic Experiences

I love learning new things so having the ability to explore Japanese, Chinese and Korean culture through the use of autoethnography has been awesome. As someone who has dabbled in Japanese culture through high school, I did start off this journey knowing a thing or two about the culture through books and materials the school gave to us. I’m not necessarily saying I know everything about the culture because in reality I only know a very small aspect of something so big, but what I do know has definitely opened my eyes.

Autoethnography is something that has taken me some time to get used to, but looking at it from a new perspective and especially using it during the time of discovering new aspects of Digital Asia’s cultures I have discovered that I was able to sort through my thoughts and ideas in a narrative autoethnographic form. By doing this my narratives would place emphasis on what I was thinking/feeling and remembering while engaging in these topics.

For my Digital Artefact, I followed an epiphany that I had during the week and chose to look further into the art of origami and specifically paper cranes. In order to make my research into an autoethnographic experience, I chose to investigate the history behind the folding of origami and paper cranes while also drawing on my own experiences with making these cranes for my art project.

Origami is the art of folding paper into decorative shapes and figures which originated in Japan. The crane is considered a mystical animal that is believed to live for thousands of years and because of this, they have become a symbol of good luck and long life. Origami was considered a ceremonial and religious art form since the symbol of the crane is lucky and sacred. A sense of wonder about the paper cranes sparked my curiosity which leads to the art of origami.

When approaching this subject to find out the history of the practice I chose to try and look at it in an autoethnographic way. Autoethnography is known as a genre of writing which displays multiple levels of consciousness, which connects the personal to the culture (Ellis, C., Adams, T.E., and Bochner, A.P. 2011). When looking at this practice I wanted to place emphasis on the study of the practice and my research and interaction with the practice.

When approaching the research side of the project I wanted to find out as much as I could about the evolution and history of origami. To do this I found a lot of websites that gave me information on the folding methods and also interesting points about its history. I found that there weren’t many academic articles about the topic so I chose to use those instead.

Coming into the research aspect of the project I found that I knew very little of the history of origami and origins of paper cranes. I found that most if not all of the information was new to me and in the long run I found out a whole lot more of a culture that I found intriguing.  The research as a whole did give me a lot more information, understanding, and insight into the culture and in hindsight, by researching the topic more I did end up understanding the practice a whole lot more which changed my outlook on the project. It started as something that I was doing because it was pretty and fascinating to something I was doing because I loved the history and story behind it and wanted to delve into the culture.

The criteria for the art piece is to create a device of wonder that spurs imagination, examination, investigation, and speculation that is caused by something beautiful, remarkable or unfamiliar. Devices of wonder invite the audience to engage in the work and ultimately become a part of it. The idea of curiosity is sparked between an individual’s and the work encourages investigation which is where the idea of someone becoming a part of the work is explored.

The prototype of the art piece was successful when it was put together and everything turned out how I wanted it. There were, however, setbacks though with the process of actually putting it up and hanging it from the roof. The reality was that my prototype was only a small indication of how it would look and I did need to change the way that the cranes were hanging from the mesh to get the impact that I wanted from the audience.

I thought that folding all these paper cranes would end up turning in to a chore and I would despise paper after, however, I think that the process of folding paper cranes has become quite therapeutic for me to do after having a stressful day or just needing some time alone.  Through experiencing this I have an understanding why this practice was originally an art form for formal ceremonies as well as an elegant way to pass the time.

 

A Flying Axe Covered in Glitter and Bubblegum

 

Tayla Bosley

5050583

DIGC330

Digital Artefact:

Autoethnographic Essay:

Autoethnography, as stated by Ellis (2011) is “an autobiographical genre of writing that displays multiple layers of consciousness, connecting the personal to the cultural.”

I think this is the absolute best way to summarise autoethnography, and I think I have achieved this in my project. By relaying through self-reflexivity, the multiple accounts of my personal experience with kawaii metal, then critically analysing those experiences and subsequent epiphanies. I hope to have brought a critical understanding of the genre to those that have read my posts, and listened to my podcasts.

As I stated in my blog post ‘Narrative Truth’, my goal has been to walk that knife’s edge “…between rigorous, theoretical, analytical science, and therapeutic, personal, and social experience-writing.” Therefore connecting my personal experience to the culture of kawaii metal, and enabling those who engage with my work to gain a deeper understanding of kawaii metal.

However, I also agree with Foley (2002) in his criticism of the practise of autoethnography. Foley advocated for a more reflexive epistemological and narrative approach to the research methodology. He believes that by doing this, creating more of a story than a research paper, it would make autoethnographies more engaging and a more common genre of research. Which could contribute to bridging the gap between researchers and ordinary people.

I must agree with Foley, I think that the more engaging, and story-like an autoethnographic account is, the more people will understand and relate to it. This alternative method has a higher chance of achieving the goal of autoethnography; relating the personal to the cultural.

Which is why my autoethnographic podcast is filled with anecdotal stories, creative opinion pieces, and the unending stream of kawaii metal songs under my words. I wanted to give the listener every possible narrative understanding of kawaii metal.

Of course this story-like format that I champion comes with its own limitations. For one, as Mendez states, autoethnography in all its forms require honesty, and a willingness to self-disclose from the researcher.

This is especially important for researchers like me, who desire a more story-like experience, as it can be all too easy to slip from story-like into fairy-tale.

As Anderson (2006) fears, “Autoethnography loses its sociological promise when it devolves into self-absorption.” What I’ve learnt is that this is what makes autoethnography so interesting, and yet so difficult. It is again walking that knife’s edge, between relaying your experience of the culture, and relaying yourself to the reader. While each autoethnographic account is through the researcher’s eyes, the focus should never stray from the culture itself.

There are also ethical considerations that must be addressed when using the autoethnographic research method. Many research topics centre around sensitive issues or beliefs in regards to the researcher themselves or the people around them. Due to this, explicit and early consent, and special consideration must be taken into account by the researcher, so as to not offend or impinge upon the privacy of their research volunteers (Wall, 2008, Mendez 2013).

It is also important to note Ellis’ own point about autoethnography, ‘No researcher is an island.’ We all come with our own experiences, our own cultural view point, our biases, and our own understanding. Thus autoethnographic researchers must disclose each aspects of themselves, least their research becomes tainted, and the reader unaware.

Overall though, the autoethnographic method is like any other research tool; it depends on how you use it, and what you want to achieve with it.

Whether it is a clinical recount of events, or your experience of a culture in its entirety. “What matters is the way in which the story enables the reader to enter the subjective world of the teller -to see the world from her or his point of view, even if this world does not ‘match reality’. Another advantage of writing autoethnographically is that it allows the researcher to write first person accounts which enable his or her voice to be heard, and thus provide him or her with a transition from being an outsider to an insider in the research.” (Hitchcock and Hughes, 1995).

Again, it is this need to bring the outsider inside, which drives the autoethnographic research process. It is making the stranger a friend, and making the alien, home, for both researcher, and reader.

As Ellis said, “On the whole, autoethnographers don’t want you to sit back as spectators; they want readers to feel and care and desire”. And I think this is mostly true of those researchers that use this methodology; their main focus is empathy. When using the autoethnographic method the researcher wants you to feel empathy, as they do while in the research process itself. As it is empathy that incites action (Barkhuizen and Wette 2008)

The entire point, limitations and all, of autoethnography, is to make the reader feel like they are already a part of the culture they are reading about. To make them understand all aspects of the culture through meticulous research, and make them feel like they’ve lived with the culture, through poignant storytelling.

It is this ‘lived in’ feeling that makes autoethnography so powerful for both readers and researchers, and I hope that, in my own reflexive narrative, I have created a story that is filled with the knowledge of kawaii metal, as well as the experience of being a cute girl headbanging to thrash metal music.

References

Songs In Podcast

Aldious: Dominator

BABYMETAL: Doki Doki Morning

BABYMETAL: Gimme chocolate!!

BABYMETAL: Iine!

BABYMETAL: Ijime, Dame, Zettai

BABYMETAL: Karate

BABYMETAL: Megitsune

BABYMETAL: Only the fox god knows audio

Band-Maid: Choose Me

Band-Maid: Real Existence

Band-Maid: Thrill

Bridear: Light in the Dark

Doll$boxx: Loud Twin Stars

Doll$boxx: Take My Chance

Ladybaby: Age Age Money

Ladybaby: Nippon Manju

Websites

Chaisson, J. (2017). This Is A Thing: Kawaii Metal. [online] Geeklyinc.com. Available at: https://geeklyinc.com/this-is-a-thing-kawaii-metal/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Crook, L. and Ransom, D. (2014). Babymetal’s fusion of Japanese teen pop and death metal is the greatest thing you’ll see today. [online] The Daily Dot. Available at: https://www.dailydot.com/unclick/babymetal-metal-japanese-pop/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Grace, K. (2016). BABYMETAL. [online] Digital Asia. Available at: https://digc330.wordpress.com/2014/08/12/babymetal/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Grace, K. (2016). Baby who?. [online] Digital Asia. Available at: https://digc330.wordpress.com/2016/09/14/baby-who/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Grace, K. (2014). BABYMETAL- the return. [online] Digital Asia. Available at: https://digc330.wordpress.com/2016/09/22/babymetal-the-return/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Articles

Barbier, E. (2017). A beginner’s guide to Kawaii metal – The Concordian. [online] The Concordian. Available at: http://theconcordian.com/2017/03/a-beginners-guide-to-kawaii-metal/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Burns, M. (2015). A New Sub-genre of Music Is Growing in Japan. [online] Anitay.kinja.com. Available at: http://anitay.kinja.com/a-new-sub-genre-of-music-is-growing-in-japan-1678920805 [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Nash, R. (2016). BabyMetal: Japan’s heavy metal girl-band sensation. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/good-weekend/babymetal-japans-heavy-metal-girl-band-sensation-20160526-gp4pl2.html [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Threads/Youtube

BABYMETAL. (2017). BABYMETAL. [online] Available at: http://www.babymetal.com/biography/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Kluseba (2017). Kawaii metal thread. [online] Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives. Available at: https://www.metal-archives.com/board/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=119301 [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Hoshiya, Y. (2015). Inside the world of “Kawaii metal”. [online] Kawaii-B. Available at: http://kawaiibuk.blogspot.com.au/2015/12/inside-world-of-kawaii-metal.html [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

YouTube. (2017). BABYMETALofficial. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/user/BABYMETALofficial [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

YouTube. (2017). LADYBABY. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCKlfTlx0oY6BiCH7Qvabrhg [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

YouTube. (2017). BANDMAID. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/user/BANDMAID [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Kikuchi, D. (2016). Spotify finally launches in Japan, a nation where other music streaming services have struggled | The Japan Times. [online] The Japan Times. Available at: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/09/29/business/tech/spotify-launches-japan-nation-streamers-struggled/#.We07G2iCzIU [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Definitions

Oxford Dictionaries | English. (2017). cute | Definition of cute in English by Oxford Dictionaries. [online] Available at: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/cute [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Cuteness. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuteness [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Kawaii. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawaii#History

Journal Articles

Anderson, L. (2006). Analytic autoethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35,373-395.

Barkhuizen, G., & Wette, R. (2008). Narrative frames for investigating the experiences of language teachers. System, 36, 372-387.

Ellis, C., Adams, T.E., and Bochner, A.P. (2011) ‘Autoethnography: An Overview’, Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12:1. Available at: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1589/3095 [Accessed 26 Oct. 2017].

Foley, D. (2002). Critical ethnography: The reflexive turn. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(4), pp.469-490.

Hitchcock, G., & Hughes, D. (1995). Research and the teacher. (2 ed.) London: Routledge.

Méndez, M. (2014). Autoethnography as a research method: Advantages, limitations and criticisms. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 15(2), p.279.

Wall, S. (2008). Easier said than done: Writing an autoethnography. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 7, 38-53.

 

More On Dating Sims: Hatoful Boyfriend

My group and I presented today on dating sims but unfortunately we ran out of time to go in further detail on Hatoful Boyfriend and the Western Influence. Below are my notes and references for my speech, and here is the post to our Prezi and our individual YouTube clips.

Additional note, this is copied from my word document so some things may be out of correct formatting.

Hatoful Boyfriend

  • An otome dating sim trying to find love between human and bird
  • You pay as a young girl given a rare opportunity to attend an elite school for birds.
  • An elite school called St. Pigeonation
  • She doesn’t say how she got this opportunity other than “it’s a long story”
  • There is some interaction, you can choose classes or activities
  • It does take a while for the game to get somewhere + slow & gradual audience immersion
  • Where Ibrahim’s game (Sunrider Academy) had a point reward structure, the only points you get in Hatoful Boyfriend are to increase your intelligence, charisma and wisdom which changes depending on the class you choose – I’m yet to find out what they’re for though.
  • Hatoful Boyfriend’s first release in its current visual novel format was a freeware demo released as a downloadable application on 31 July 2011
  • Hatoful Boyfriend was originally created on a limited budget and with limited promotion
  • It wasn’t until word of mouth got through Twitter and other social media that it started to boom
  • At the beginning of the game you are able to select whether you would like a human portrait or not upon meeting different birds – the portrait only comes once.
  • The idea behind the game is that the pigeons become seen less like pigeons and more like people, with personalities, characteristics and the use of portraits
  • A sequel, Hatoful Boyfriend: Holiday Star, was released on 29 December 2011, with an English version being released on Christmas Day the following year

Game play experience

OUTSIDE OF THE GAME

  • Several official adaptations of Hatoful Boyfriend including books and publications, webcomics, drama CDs, web radio, web series, and plush production line.
  • Hatoful Boyfriend drinking game
  • Erick Scarecrow released a Kickstarter in November 2015 with Hato Moa and Devolver Digital, asking for $25,000 to create a production line of three characters from the Hatoful Boyfriend universe, specifically Shuu, Ryouta and Okosan.
  • The campaign ended on December 6 2015 with all stretch goals reached, adding seven more characters to the production line. A total of $145,015 had been pledged in less than a month.
  • Because of the success of the first Kickstarter, the following year Erick Scarecrow, Hato Moa and Devolver Digital released a second Kickstarter campaign
  • They didn’t raise as much as the first but it was still above their target, raising $54,455

Doesn’t stop there!

  • Hatoful shop – Okosan Plush for ages 15 & up? http://hatofulshop.limitedrun.com/products/572747-hatoful-boyfriend-okosan-plush
  • Beanies, ponchos, assortment of bundles, socks, tags and lanyards. Not to mention my favourite item, the body pillows – where you can have your sleep with your very own snuggling pigeon boyfriend!
  • One side of the pillow shows the human portrait, the other the pigeon form
  • Last but not least, the less ‘official’ side of things. Redbubble and CafePress are websites and companies that host customised products from users.
  • Redbubble had a majority of customised shirts made by fans with a few miscellaneous things like these stickers.
  • The HatoStore by Cafepress had a bigger variety of products with bags, mugs, pins, shirts and a few others.
  • I thought I should also mention Line. The Line store had stickers for sale but they’re not physical stickers, they were the digital stickers, like the ones you can download on Facebook (think Pusheen). I thought this was interesting having a cross platform and not just physical products.
  • Another thing I should mention, Line has official licensing for the stickers, it just wasn’t the official page from Hato Moa. Thought I could slip that in there.

Before I move on to our next topic…

I encourage you to check out a Sydney Morning Herald article which is linked in our references list, they state some very good points and they have some really interesting facts in their research, in a part of the article SMH states “The developers from Voltage surveyed Japanese women extensively, asking about their lives and needs before adapting their games to match”. I found it really interesting and if you would like further reading on dating sims I highly recommend it.

WESTERN INFLUENCE
I will firstly give a quick brief of three games.

England Exchange! An International Affair is a Visual Novel made by a UK company called Hanako Games.

  • Released April this year.
  • You’re an American student on exchange in England, living, working and studying in London.

Dream Daddy, is a gay dating sim where you date dads. It’s made huge success since its release earlier this year.

  • The success of Dream Daddy was due to promotion of the very popular developers, Game Grumps, a largely recognised Let’s Play web series.
  • As of October this year, Game Grumps has 4 million subscribers and over 3 billion total video views.

Coming Out On Top – released in 2014 but came to Steam as of October this year.

  • Created by an American heterosexual woman under the developer name of ObscuraSoft, and funded through Kickstarter
  • The dating sim involves the white main character coming out to his two roommates
  • He also has a pet goldfish you can confide in with a possible story route of being sexually mounted by this pet fish

Without getting too far into the western gaming concerns and getting off topic, the success of the western dating sims has identified a growing interest in games that think about and explore relationships.

  • The Sims has been a leading figure here for many years, but recent games like Gone Home and Life is Strange are pushing toward more human complexity.

On another scale, we have dating sim parodies. Mostly made by fans using Ren’Py development software but here are some examples.

Shia LaBeouf Meme Master Dating Sim – Free to download and consists of Shia LaBeouf memes. https://gamejolt.com/games/shia-labeouf-meme-master-dating-simulator/77971

  • Found on a website called GameJolt.
  • Free to download and play. Also has a walkthrough.

Resident Evil 4: Otome Edition http://www.pcgamer.com/resident-evil-4-otome-edition-is-a-dating-sim-played-from-ashleys-perspective/

Also on GameJolt, A Day in the Life of a Dating Sim (early access) https://gamejolt.com/games/a-day-in-a-dating-sim/143694

However, because these are all fanmade parodies, there wasn’t much information on where they were developed. It was more so what software was used. I found it hard finding any parodies in a western art style like that of Dream Daddy or England Exchange.

…But with some digging I found this Kickstarter!

Grand Old Academy has a free demo for Mac and Windows on their Kickstarter page.

  • Released in May this year.
  • It’s described as ‘Hatoful Boyfriend but instead of pigeons they’re politicians’. If you’ve ever had a desire to date Donald Trump you now can!

This concludes our presentation. Are there any questions?

 

 

Notes and other bits:
The Guardian gives an in-depth look at how Dream Daddy became a success in the West.

  • The Guardian mentions in their article that ‘daddy’ is a broad term saying it “usually refers to a character, who is larger and typically older than the average player, someone serious but with a sense of humour – someone you look up to even when you’re playing the game as them.”
  • Continuing they say, “some modern characters are more overtly paternal, such as Joel from post-apocalyptic adventure The Last of Us, Booker DeWitt from Bioshock Infinite and Nathan Drake’s surrogate father figure Sully in Uncharted”
  • “It is usually refers to a character, who is larger and typically older than the average player, someone serious but with a sense of humour – someone you look up to even when you’re playing the game as them.”
  • “…Leaving straight women, people of colour and a huge proportion of LGBT people out in the cold. It’s not that games by and for this diverse market don’t exist but they often don’t receive the publicity they need to get them into the hands of as many people who want them.’

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jul/26/dream-daddy-gay-dating-sim-hit-summer-steam

Comparing dating sims/VNs to a soap opera or romance novel in interactive form.
https://www.dailydot.com/debug/voltage-japanese-romance-simulators/

Who We Are Now is a dating sim based on queer romance in the post-apocalypse. Out of four male candidates, you get to freely choose which relationship you want to invest your time in. In exchange for helping the person you choose, the village elder gives you a place to stay. https://www.kotaku.com.au/2017/06/a-charming-post-apocalyptic-gay-dating-sim/

Zodiac Attack

Prezi

Artefact:

 

 

The decision to investigate the Chinese Zodiac came relatively easy to us. Each of us already had an interest in horoscopes and could identify (or thought we could!) the Chinese zodiac animal of the year we were born. Beyond that, we knew very little about the Chinese zodiac or its cultural and social impact.

The first shock was for Kris – he realised that he was not an ox, as he’d thought, but a tiger. This is because the Chinese New Year falls at a different time to the calendar we are accustomed to; because Kris was born in January, he’s still part of the previous year’s zodiac. We later discovered that whilst China operates day to day via the same calendar we do, its zodiac operates on a different scale of time.

As globalisation continues to morph the world into a new shape, it is becoming difficult to examine a culture holistically from an external perspective. This is because cultural, social, economic and political paradigms are wrapped around multiple locations on the globe; when analysing an ‘unfamiliar’ practice, we need to systematically analyse our own context and experience simultaneously (Ellis et. al 2017; Hayano 1979). This is what has ignited the demand for autoethnographic research. Hayano, an Associate Professor in Anthropology at California State University, argued this in 1979; now in 2017 it is even more true. Therefore at this early stage of our investigation, we each began to record and understand our own relationship with the Chinese zodiac. We each were born under a different animal; Kris is an ox, Brooke is a tiger and Claire is a rat. We discovered that the Chinese Zodiac has been adapted into an Australian context to promote multilateral understanding between the two cultures.

Once we had gotten a feel for our ‘characters’, we experimented with compatibility tests. It was a little alarming at this early point in our research to discover that the three of us are seen as mostly unfit to work together.

1

Source: Twitter @brookiyuki   

 

2.JPG

Source: Twitter @c_lair_e_96

Considering the three of us had never worked together on an assessment before, and each have an interest and some level of belief in the zodiac systems we’ve encountered, this was an interesting occurrence. We were mindful of the danger of a self-fulfilling prophecy, which occurs when a prediction becomes true due to the positive feedback between belief and behaviour (see this Reddit forum for more on self-fulfilling prophecies and astrology). Would this team ‘fail’ to work together because we were told it would be so? No such travesty occurred, thankfully; the three of us managed to pull together an artefact and surrounding research we were each content with.

We enhanced our autoethnographic method via publishing our experiences on Twitter to make “witnessing” possible (Ellis et. al 2017). Ellis argues that this gives readers,  often with varied experiences in the research field at hand, the ability to “observe and testify”. We had multiple engagements with our Twitter posts, which used the hashtags #digc330 and #zodiacattack. This was both to validate our research, keep track of it and allow others to intervene or share their own experience.

 

kris.JPG

We journalised our experiences with the Chinese Zodiac via Twitter (source: Twitter @krischristou)

Our key epiphany was the huge role that the Chinese zodiac plays in the cultural, social and economic spheres of China. It’s normal for Chinese citizens to plan when to conceive children according to the zodiac. For example, the Year of the Dragon is widely accepted to be lucky and desirable. In 1988 and 2000, both Dragon years, the birth rate in China increased in the short-term, which makes it “unquestionable that the Dragon Year preference exerts an influence on fertility of modern Chinese populations through zodiacal birth-timing motivations” (Lee et. al 2002). Economically, the Chinese media industry is inundated with references to and portrayals of the zodiac, including anime, television programs and even card games. We found that across the board, the zodiac animals portrayed values of power and leadership.

It has been fascinating to consider the impact of the Chinese zodiac on China itself, from our university classrooms on “this vast continent on the edge of the Asian landmass” (Leong et. al 2017), primarily via the internet, relevant media and a single paperback book.