Author: jessmoxx

To wrap it all up…

Even though this will be my last written post in this series on hentai, it’s certainly not where my role as autoethnographer ends. Or at least autoethnography as I’ve come to know it, which is as tool for engaging with social and cultural phenomenon underscored by cultural reflexivity and a reflection upon one’s own experiences to frame one’s understanding of that phenomenon. While this is a research process that involves writing down your thoughts, I think that this form of self-reflection is also a very useful exercise in mindfulness.

Throughout this study I’ve confronted many of the paradoxes and challenges I’ve often come up against as a student, woman, human being. Let me explain. I went into this study as a student of DIGC330, and only that. I wanted to investigate hentai as a weird and quirky subject matter, based on the fact that I didn’t understand the appeal of animated pornography when real porn is so abundant. Shortly into my investigation I was approaching the work as a feminist, then as a kind of feminist-historian, but always as an outsider, never quite coming to terms with the subject matter I was seeking to engage with.

The way women are portrayed in the videos and pictures doesn’t shock me, but I still feel affronted by it. I feel that it warrants attention as part of a global trend toward the fetishisation and objectification of women’s bodies. As the autoethnographic process necessitates, I could not simply research as a student of DIGC330, I had to take ownership of my values, beliefs and understanding about the way gender and sexuality functions in this world and apply this to my study. My reflections were always punctuated by a variety of other sources, however my interest always piqued at information pertaining to gender representations and changing gender roles, as opposed to, say, information about how the internet has affected the proliferation of hentai or hentai fandoms online. I admit that in the end this probably obscured or overtook more hentai-specific research paths I could have been taking, however those were the avenues more relevant to me.

Indeed I think if I had a broader scope for research I would delve more deeply into the online culture of hentai, i.e. how hentai consumers interact with each other online. In relation to this I barely touched the surface, yet one comment I will venture to make, because this surprised me, is that the language used by participants in the few forums I visited seemed quite tame, reasonably respectful and didn’t contain any degrading remarks about women, be it in the videos or real life.

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The Tentacle Creature from the Black Lagoon

Today I wanted to follow-up a conversation I had with Chris to try to uncover a theory he was toying with: that the spread of H. P. Lovecraft to Japan greatly influenced the form hentai presently takes. Now it’s not a long bow to draw, the idea that his weird horror fiction could have manifested itself in Japan in such a way. Just take for example Cthulhu, Lovecraft’s fictional deity, “a monster of vaguely anthropoid outline, but with an octopus-like head whose face was a mass of feelers…”. One blogger comments that there are many instances of creative borrowing from Lovecraft in manga overall, however “the closest the Puritanical writer came to the monsters-ravishing-women plots” is an off-screen impregnation by an alien entity. For an author that abstained from writing about sex, it’s interesting to consider how he’d feel about the suggestion that his work influenced tentacle hentai today.

Fan art of Cthulu

Besides H. P. Lovecraft’s use of tentacles, there is an older, more telling artefact that warrants attention. The below image is titled The Dream of the Fisherman’s Wife (Katsushika Hokusai: 1820) and is an example of early Japanese art that appears to “celebrate female sexuality rather than simply creating an image for male fantasy” (Stockins 2009).  The woman in the picture looks more as if in a moment of ecstasy than distress, and the dialogue printed in the background “expresses the mutual sexual enjoyment of the woman and the octopus” (ibid.).  It is startling to consider that in my own research I have rarely found hentai that celebrates women’s enjoyment of sex. To me, this older work is more progressive and sexually enlightened than images being produced today. If I had more scope for research I would definitely investigate this regression further.

So with this historical basis to draw from, renowned hentai creator Toshio Maeda is oft credited with the proliferation of tentacles into modern day hentai manga. I was very curious to learn how how the popularity of tentacle hentai could reach such heights. Maeda said in an interview that the substitution of tentacles for the penis was more about circumventing Japan’s strict laws against depicting genitals than literary or other influences. So… with such tough censorship laws, were tentacles were simply the natural conclusion for anime and manga artists in Japan…?

The Wiki thread detailing Japanese censorship laws on pornography was most informative. What the law predominantly pertains to is forbidding the distribution of “indecent” materials. In some cases this seems to conflict with ideas about freedom of expression, which to me is particularly interesting based on many of the discussion we are currently having in Australia about what could be offensive to people vs. what constitutes your right to free speech. It seems to me that in Japan the Criminal Code is interpreted as ‘sex is ok as long as you don’t explicitly show genitals’. Though many sources appear to indicate that while this is a punishable offence, only one case has gone to trial in 20 years (according to a number of blogs who all seem to get their info from Wiki).

This train of thought also got me thinking, are these strict laws a product of a prudish or conservative aspect of Japanese culture? I don’t believe in gratuitous displays of sexuality, but it’s certainly shouldn’t be taboo or something to be ashamed about. The West is infamous for producing explicitly sexual and violent content, however we are much stricter on child pornography than Japan was up until earlier this year, as I mentioned in a previous post.  To me these feel like incongruities that are difficult to navigate.

It’s definitely been enlightening for me to delve into Japan’s censorship laws, because at the outset of my study I was freaked out at just how deeply tentacles had penetrated (please excuse the pun) the hentaiscape. I thought it was merely a preoccupation and fetish for tentacles that sparked their popularity, but now I see it as a more creative way to publish content that would otherwise be restricted. This being said, I imagine that it has also sparked some real tentacle fetishes out there!

 

Thompson, J. 2012, ‘The long tentable of H.P. Lovecraft in Manga’, Kinja, http://io9.com/5439408/the-long-tentacle-of-hp-lovecraft-in-manga-nsfw

Sex and sexuality over time

No study of social and cultural phenomenon would be complete without an exploration into its history. For my own study on hentai I think it pertinent to investigate changing social and cultural attitudes toward sex, sexuality and gender in Japan over time, and relate it to the emergence of sexual content within the mediascape more broadly, and anime and manga specifically.  From what I understand, Japan is historically quite paternalistic, yet there is also an intriguing blurring of the lines between a kinda of ultra-modernity and strong tradition.  Out of this context I’m interested to discover whether women in Japan are permitted or encouraged to take active ownership of their bodies and their sexuality (a concern which has emerged out of my own feminist perspective), as well as explore the culturally defined contours of masculine and feminine sexual identity.  Hentai to me appears grossly misogynistic, so I want to understand more about the lived experiences of men and women.

Luckily our own UOW professor Mark McLelland, a cultural historian/sociologist specialising in sexuality and new media with a focus on Japan (talk about serendipity), has done the hard yards for me. I will be drawing on some of his publications in this post, however the full range of his works can be found here, very comprehensive! One idea that McLellend (2012: 2) brings up in his book Love, Sex and Democracy in Japan During the American Occupation is that of habitus, or “how people’s experience of embodiment differs between genders, cultures and time periods”.  He draws on the example that in postwar Japan not only did newly imported American models of courtship radically transform dating practices and attitudes towards sex, but the volume of public discussion and discourse into sex and sexuality noticeably increased, as there was a clear need to “renegotiate and redefine male-female relationships” due to changing behaviours (Ibid.: 5).  This meant radical sexualisation within the popular press, and the proliferation of images of women’s bodies in ways that would have been inconceivable in the years prior. It is during this period that hentai culture, true to the Japanese meaning of the word, began to really develop.

“…by the early 1950s a subgenre had developed focusing on hentai seiyokuor ‘perverse desire’ which included both male and female homosexuality as well as a range of fetishistic behaviors including characteristically Japanese obsessions such as love suicides and disembowelment [seppuku]” – McLelland 2006

It seems that sexuality in Japan cannot be discussed without an appreciation of the changes that took place post-WWII. It is out of this context that the idea of the “modern woman” started to materialize. Common stereotypes of women as “gentle” and “meek” gave way to more dynamic images that “challenged the previously existing widespread mythology of a monolithic Japanese woman” (Sato 2003: 1).  This strikes a chord with me, because the female characters in hentai are generally meek, submissive and helpless.

Moreover, I find this terminology, “the modern woman”, very striking, because further research revealed that medieval Japanese culture promoted fairly liberal, open attitudes toward sexual activity, however during the Edo period militarism, paternalism and Confucian thought began to impact societal beliefs about women and sexuality (Deal 2005: 346).  Thus the idea of the modern woman, with her newfound sexual freedoms, is in fact a concept embedded within Japanese history and has taken on new forms over time.

Returning to the idea of sexual imagery, Stockins (2009) says that “images of erotica and the female form were common in Japan’s early art as they still remain today in contemporary Anime and Manga”. If I had more scope for research I think it would be a very worthy study to compare how women were portrayed then in relation to now, especially the women in hentai. As I mentioned in a previous post I think there is an incredible paradox between the freedoms the “modern day woman” is assumed to have and the way the female body is used in media.

Deal, W. E. 2005, Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan, Oxford University Press: NY

McLelland, M. 2006, ‘A short history of hentai’, Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context, no. 12, http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue12/mclelland.html

McLelland, M. 2012, Love,Sex, and Democracy in Japan During the American Occupation, Palgrave Macmillan: NY

Sato, B. 2003, The New Japanese Woman: Modernity, Media, and Women in Interwar Japan, Duke University Press

Stockins, J. 2009, The popular image of Japanese femininity inside the anime and manga culture of Japan and Sydney

Feminism and porn

This week I’d like to strengthen my autoethnographic research through a closer examination of how my own perspective and lived experiences frame my understanding of the hentai culture I’m studying. As Dyson (2007: 39) says, the autoethnographic “author and researcher necessarily reveals his or her hand, or voice, up front”. For me this means being open about the ways in which my personal beliefs and attitudes underscore the relationship that has begun to develop between myself and my chosen field of study. This kind of transparency is crucial for the author to then begin asking questions about how their own position acts as a lens that filters, refracts and interprets the cultural phenomenon they are studying (Ellis & Bochner 2000: 739).

As autoethnographic research is generally framed around recollections of important event’s in the researchers life (Philaretou & Allen 2006), I think it’s critical that I discuss my growing awareness and deepening concern for feminist issues as it is the gender representations in hentai that has been most aggravating to me. A few years ago I did not identify as a feminist, but came into contact with the idea during my studies. Since then I’ve begun to notice more and more the way in which daily occurrences that are normalized and institutionalized in this culture perpetuate the patriarchy and reinforce gender inequalities.

Feminist views of pornography fall into three broad categories: anti-porn feminism, liberal feminism that advocates freedom of expression and choice, and pro-sex feminism (McElroy 2002). My personal views on pornography lie somewhere between anti-porn and the liberal feminist position. I think that many women consume pornography for their own enjoyment, and they have the right to not only view it, but participate in it, however the porn industry is explicitly geared toward fulfilling male sexual desire and representations of women in pornography in its current form are harmful, degrading and rarely empowering. In other words, the porn industry doesn’t exist for both genders, rather it is more about showing “women as submissive sexual objects presented for the sole purpose of providing pleasure to men” (Reinhard 2010)

(Photo courtesy of Cambridge University Press)

In my limited experience of hentai so far I’ve seen almost exclusively sexist and damaging representations of women (and girls), in many cases blatantly misogynist… here I am referring to the productions that depict not sex, but rape. While these images are disturbing, they are not as confronting or surprising, as they should be. I know very little about gender and sexuality in Japan (and I will endeavour to research this further in my next post), however as a female that’s grown up with Western mass media, I am all too familiar with the objectification and domination of the female body. I remember hearing as a young girl that “Barbie” had a negative influence on body image because she would not physically be able to support her figure in real life, and I can certainly say this would be the case for most of the female characters in hentai with their tiny limbs and grossly oversized breasts.

One of the few non explicit images I could find in Google

 

Dyson, M. 2007, ‘My Story in a Profession of Stories: Auto Ethnography – an Empowering Methodology for Educators’, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 32(1).

McElroy, W. 2004, ‘A feminist defense of pornography’, Free Inquiry Magazine, 17(14), viewed online at http://www.secularhumanism.org/library/fi/mcelroy_17_4.html

Philaretou, A. G and Allen, K. R. 2006, ‘Researching Sensitive Topics through Autoethnographic Means’, Journal of Men’s Studies, 14(1)

Reinhard, C. D. 2010, ‘The rise of hentai in America, part 2’, It’s playing, just with research, viewed online at http://playingwithresearch.com/2012/08/12/the-rise-of-hentai-in-america-part-2/

 

Can you talk the talk?

I realized at this stage in my research I needed to start digging a little deeper because I have only really scratched the surface of a topic that has many offshoots. I came up with some blog ideas to investigate over the next few weeks that should help me achieve two primary goals: a) learn more about the active hentai community through reading a wide range of forum threads and b) uncover the historical and cultural roots that have made hentai what it is today. As Ellis et al. says, “when researchers write ethnographies, they produce a “thick description” of a culture”. I feel that comparing and contrasting literature on the subject with my own interpretation of how this is reflected in participants’ interactions online will facilitate my role as autoethnographer in discerning patterns of cultural experience and synthesizing them to produce a meaningful and engaging text on the subject.

Screen Shot 2014-10-17 at 8.46.19 am

My initial reaction to trawling the forums was how difficult it is for an outsider to familiarize themselves with the hentai vernacular, which is littered with translated, abbreviated and appropriated Japanese phrases describing a variety of hentai phenomenon. I have talked about Ecchi in a previous discussion, but Ecchi is only the beginning. This Wiki page shows some of the other hentai subgenres, but I don’t think it’s a comprehensive list. More comprehensive is this page – a glossary of hentai terms (the sheer volume of terms is slightly overwhelming to me as newcomer). I was pretty surprised when I stumbled upon one forum thread titled ‘What do you most like in hentai?’ and one user answered ‘shimapan’. Of course Google gave me some answers: shimapan is an abbreviation of shima-pantsu, meaning striped panties, most commonly blue and white. And yes, before you ask there ARE a plenty of blogs already dedicated to appeasing the shimapan fans. Funnily enough there is also a Japanese term to describe people in anime/manga fandoms with obsessive interests: Otaku.

While Otaku is the word used in this specific context, I would relate this phenomenon more broadly to fetishes, which emerge from all cultures globally. From a psychoanalytical perspective, a fetish is an “object providing sexual gratification… among the objects frequently sought as fetishistic are shoes, bras and panties, etc.” (Lowenstein 2002: 135-136). The idea that some hentai fans have a preference for shimapan fits neatly into this definition. After contemplating it more deeply and reflecting on this further research, I feel more empathetic towards those discussing their fetishes in forums in such a forthright manner. I certainly don’t believe it’s anything to be ashamed of (unless of course your fetish is liable to cause harm to another person), and it’s great that the Internet has produced a platform for people to discuss what might otherwise be considered ‘oddities’, save for the fact that they now form part of a community with similar interests.

Maybe I am part of the in-group now, cause I get it!

Maybe I am part of the in-group now, cause I get it!

As I touched on before, a lot of what constitutes this community is underscored by the language used. Scholars attests to the relationship between language and (sub)cultural identity (Jaspal 2009: 17), and it seems to me that knowledge and usage of all these terms by Japanese and non-Japanese speaking participants is the marker that binds together an otherwise potentially diverse group and expresses the unique character of the hentai community.  Of course for me contributing to the forums at this stage will draw attention to the fact that I’m from the outgroup as I still don’t possess the proper lexicon that would show me to be a bon-fide member, nor am I familiar with any of the hentai series under discussion. I’ve always been interested in language and etymology but the research led me to start thinking more about the language of identity and the way language becomes a kind of currency within a subculture. You use it to communicate with others, but you also use it to gain access, acceptance and credibility within a specific community. If you can’t talk the talk, you definitely can’t walk the walk.

Ellis, C., Adams, T. E. and Bochner, A. P. 2011, ‘Autoethnography: an overview’, Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, vol. 12, no. 1, viewed online at http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1589/3095

Jaspal, R. 2009, ‘Language and social identity: A psychosocial approach’, Psych-Talk

Lowenstein, L. F. 2002, ‘Fetishes and their associated behaviour’, Sexuality and Disability, vol. 20, no. 2

My own hentai digital artefact

I think the process of turning my autoethnographic study into a digital artefact will really bring to a head all the tensions I’ve been having with this topic. I have to find a way to channel the aspects of this study that challenge my ideas of what I consider, as a Western feminist, appropriate representations of men and women, but also express it in a way that I feel comfortable sharing with my peers, i.e nothing too graphic that could offend someone.

I feel there are a lot of questions that need to be asked about how this genre might contribute to the patriarchy and gender stereotypes, and what the implications of this are given that hentai is animated material, not real life.  Hentai, at least the correct Japanese manifestation of it which means perverse, produces some truly disturbing and profane material. Exploring this within my own digital artefact will be interesting.

I’m thinking I’d like to create some parodies of the genre, perhaps with clear role reversals, but my drawing skills are, and I’m being generous here, limited. Though that doesn’t mean I couldn’t do some kind of digital collage. Or I could even take an existing video and subtitle/dub it with an altogether different dialogue that subverts the original meaning.  Maybe even get some of my friends involved and do an improvised, collaborative re-dub.

I also think that it’s reached that time in the autoethnographic study arc that I begin to engage with some online communities. Since this methodology requires that the researchers themselves are a primary participant, and that in regards to hentai the online forums abound, I believe I should leave the periphery and cautiously edge my way in.

For an example of what I potentially have in mind here’s a parody dub from the Dark Knight…

Cute… porn?

Before I start today’s post I want to add a (late) disclaimer on the term hentai and my usage of it. In Japan hentai can refer to sexually explicit manga or anime, but it denotes that this material is of an unusual, perverse or extreme nature.  The usage of the word hentai to signify the entire genre of what the Japanese call ero (erotic) manga, not just the really weird stuff, is a Western appropriation of the word and that’s how it’s being used in this blog. For more info on terminology and some interesting history, see here.

This week’s topic, peripheral media, was troubling me a bit because from what I’ve discovered about hentai so far it is itself on the periphery of anime.  Last week when trying to find out whether there were any celebrities or famous figures in the hentai world it became clear that hentai exists primarily on the internet and it was difficult to pin down any ‘major players’ so to speak. 

I delved a little deeper though, and discovered ecchi, a word adopted by fans and consumers of Japanese media to denote a sub-genre within adult anime. Ecchi as an adjective can mean ‘naughty’, or as a verb mean ‘to have sex’, and when applied to anime refers to content that is not sexually explicit. It is the softcore porn of hentai and these productions hint at sex as opposed to depicting it. 

Many ecchi fans use tumblr to share and view content, for example Cute Ecchi: “Ecchi and cute anime girls. No nipples and/or genitals”. It seems to me that ecchi is a response to the grossly explicit hentai out there, which frequently portrays scenes where girls are being debased and exploited. Women (or rather I should say girls as most of the subjects don’t look a whole like like women) are still the focus of ecchi, but the images are a little bit more palatable, the misogyny is not as heavy, and the viewer can use their imagination a little, which is rendered unneccessary for really graphic hentai videos.

While one article says that the “fantasy world of demons, octopus, and other sexual hijinks that are impossible to perform” is part of the appeal of hentai, I’m relieved that there is an off-shoot of this phenomenon that is comparatively conservative. Call me a prude, but some of the hentai I’ve seen seems unhealthy and potentially damaging. Just as real life porn can leave people with unrealistic expectations about sex, the way women are depicted in hentai makes the feminist in me pretty damn angry because of the potential it has to affect viewers’ psychology.  Seeing fans sharing ’nicer’, tamer content is a good indication that many others also can’t relate to hentai’s hardcore characteristics. 

carteles-ecchi-desmotivaciones

Me? Perverted? I only imagine beautiful things… 

 

Asian Hip-Hop – Plan of action!

Nicole, Sara, Jess

alex_td_kid

WEEK 1-2

  • Have a group meeting to clearly define our aims and intentions for the project and adopt a research framework
  • Assign a country to each member
  • Create our digital artefact so we can begin adding to it

Choices of countries to compare:

  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Philippines
  • India
  • China and Taiwan
  • Malaysia

Digital artefact:

Tumblr post – We will all contribute to and build a tumblr post that combines images, videos and links to relevant sources with our research and analysis. Our posts will attempt to highlight what distinguishes hip-hop from each country and makes it unique.

WEEK 2-5

Each member should conduct their own research to answer these questions, and others that may arise, in relation to their assigned country.

Any relevant sources and ideas should be communicated via tumblr throughout the four weeks, not just at the end, so the final product reflects a cumulative process.

We could potentially arrange a theme for each week to ‘post’ on or just post as we find

Key questions:

  • How and when did hip-hop emerge in this country?
  • What are the characteristics that distinguish this brand of hip-hop?
  • What makes it similar to hip-hop from other parts of Asia?
  • What are the similarities and differences that can be drawn to African-American hip-hop roots?
  • How do these hip-hop practices incorporate or reflect elements of the in-country culture?
  • What are some quintessential examples of hip hop and who are the hip-hop celebrities? (post links to videos/audio)
  • What are some of the dominant lyrical themes?
  • Who is consuming this music and how is it distributed?
  • Does this reflect a localisation of traditional hip-hop, or has globalisation/capitalism accelerated a change in hip-hop worldwide?

Side-Chatter-3

WEEK 5-6

The group will meet up to develop our presentation. This will mean deciding on the most salient features of the research, talk about what we expected to discover from the research and whether these expectations differed from the outcome, how the results from each country differed and how we can tie in all the results to present to the class.

 

Ever dreamed of being (with) a celebrity?

When faced with the task of finding celebrities in my chosen area of study I had to chuckle. Does the hentai world mirror that of the real porn industry, where people rise to super porn stardom and have the chance to win an AVN Award? I had recently watched Boogie Nights. Where was the Dirk Diggler of anime?  No, I don’t believe he exists. Instead, what I found was that celebrity takes on a different form – that of appropriation.

What do Pirates of the Caribbean, Avatar and The Fifth Element have in common? Or Shakira, Angelina Jolie and Spiderman? It would appear that these movie characters and celebrities have all been transformed, in varying degrees of realism, into the stars of anime porn. This doesn’t surprise me in the slightest, I just wonder if these celebs have seen their animated counterparts and wonder what they think of it. Is there a case to sue the artist on the basis of.. well, defamation? Again I’m left trying to trace the boundaries of this sub-culture. If someone is depicted using an overtly cartoonish style, does that have less potential to offend than an image with a higher degree of realism (think Spongebob of Spongebob Square Pants vs Andy from Toy Story 3)?

Western celebrities aside, I trawled some forums in an attempt to discover whether there were some renowned hentai producers and films and stood out against the rest, or if, as it seemed to me, the market was flooded with content from many different sources, hosted on websites that might be the hentai equivalent of redtube. I came across an IMDB list with the “most popular hentai adult titles”, but the features shared nothing in common, nothing that would indicate that the hentai consumers had formed a fandom around a particular character or director.

Perhaps because of the nature of the films directors/producers are reluctant to develop their career to the point of recognition making hentai.  Or maybe the fans are fickle, only seeking instant gratification from the thousands of videos readily available, and nothing else. Or, and this is highly likely, I just don’t understand the workings of this oft ignored community

Screen Shot 2014-08-22 at 8.52.30 amScreen Shot 2014-08-22 at 8.54.15 am

very realistic vs not so… sorry if it’s creepy.

An interesting turn

Since my last post I’ve completely changed the focus of my autoethnographic study. In the lecture Chris talked about the process of auto ethnographic study and the way in which your material or artefact begins to confront you with its own reality. My original idea wasn’t bold enough, it wasn’t necessarily going to draw me into its reality. So I racked my brain for interesting or unusual elements of digital Asian culture that I had seen over the years.  If I was thinking unusual I undeniably had to settle on hentai. 

Now this is where things might get a little weird, because hentai is anime porn. If you haven’t heard of it already, you might be a little taken aback, especially to find out that it not only exists, but that there is a huge market for it. There are lots of sites on the net that host hentai videos, and even more forum threads where people come to discuss them. 

I think this is going to be an interesting and challenging study for me because at this point I am so far from understanding the appeal of this weird sub genre of anime, and why people watch and create it. Not to mention the fact that I have to share my reflections on these explicit films with a class full of strangers. 

So after my first search in google using the words “manga pornography”, that word ‘confronting’ rears its head again. In June this year (wtf.. only this year??), Japan finally voted to ban the possession of child pornography, though manga comics and anime videos were excluded from the bill “after calls to protect freedom of expression”. This is a really serious issue, and it is deeply disturbing that the sexual objectification of children is of secondary concern to protecting the rights of those people wanting to “express themselves”, and in turn preserve and promote this sick trend. 

From a media student’s perspective, the debate here becomes very interesting. What are the effects of ‘cartoons’ on psychology and behaviour? To what extent can people separate the representations of people’s actions and behaviours in drawings with real life? While I in no way support the the ongoing portrayal of children in manga porn, and am quite disgusted, these questions need to be addressed. 

[Side note] Ok, I just thought about this a bit more and now I’m confused. Lolita, one of my favourite books,  clearly crossed the line I just drew. After it was first published, it was immediately banned for being obscene. Now it is widely read and has been made into two movies. The boundaries of artistic licence are very blurry. 

Interesting vlog talking about the American media’s reaction to the above issue, highlighting the difficulty in distinguishing sexually suggestive/pornography/young girls/minors in manga and anime.